Field Experiments & Instrumentation / Workshops                    --- Making Things Happen ---     

Renon (Italy)


Unevenly aged coniferous forest on a mountain

Latitude 46.59 
Longitude 11,43 


  • Campaign 2005
  • Eddy covariance
  • Meteorology
  • Advection


Description & History

The ADVEX advection experiment was one of the most extensive field experiments with the aim to explicitly measure all components of the CO2 mass balance in a control volume, including the advective terms. The main motivation was to find an alternative for correcting nighttime Eddy-covariance measurements and derived CO2 budgets.

The Renon/Ritten site (RE), operated by the Forest Service and the Agency of the Environment of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, is situated at 1735 m a.s.l. in the Italian Alps. It is located in northeast Italy, on the southern side of the Alps at a distance of 12.2 km north-northeast from the town of Bolzano. It is placed on a porphyric plateau that is part of the irregular slopes of “Cima del Lago Nero” (2069 m) and is between the wide Isarco river valley and the narrow and steep Sarentino river valley. The nearest peaks are “Corno di Renon” (2259 m a.s.l.) at about 3.7 km north-northeast and “Cima di Villandro” (2509 m a.s.l.) at about 8.2 km north-northwest.

The site vegetation is of natural origin and is used for wood production. It consists of an unevenly aged coniferous forest with gaps between groups of older and younger trees. The main forest species is spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst., 85% in number) followed by cembran pine (Pinus cembra L., 12%) and larch (Larix decidua Mill., 3%)(Montagnani et al., 2009).

Variables & Instruments


  • Eddy covariance - CO2, water vapor, momentum, heat (Gill R3, LI7000)
  • Profile at 4 heights - CO2, H2O (Gill R3, LI6262)

Soil conditions

  • Soil temperature - soil temperature sensors PT100, home-made
  • Soil moisture - soil moisture probes ML-2x, Delta-T
  • Soil heat flux - soil heat flux plates HP3/CN3, Rimco

Data acquisition

  • Flux and profile data - notebook


Feigenwinter, C., Bernhofer, C., Eichelmann, U., Heinesch, B., Hertel, M., Janous, D., Kolle, O., Lagergren, F., Lindroth, A., Minerbi, S., Moderow, U., Molder, M., Montagnani, L., Queck, R., Rebmann, C., Vestin, P., Yernaux, M., Zeri, M., Ziegler, W., Aubinet, M. (2008). Comparison of horizontal and vertical advective CO2 fluxes at three forest sites. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 148: 12–24.

Moderow, U., Aubinet, M., Feigenwinter, C., Kolle, O., Lindroth, A., Molder, M., Montagnani, L., Rebmann, C., Bernhofer, C. (2009). Available energy and energy balance closure at four coniferous forest sites across Europe. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 98(3-4), 397-412

Montagnani, L., Manca, G., Canepa, E., Georgieva, E., Acosta, M., Feigenwinter, C., Janous, D., Kerschbaumer, G., Lindroth, A., Minach, L., Minerbi, S., Molder, M., Pavelka, M., Seufert, G., Zeri, M., Ziegler, W. (2009). A new mass conservation approach to the study of CO2 advection in an alpine forest. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 114, D07306. doi:10.1029/2008jd010650.