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Zotto = Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (Russia)

Location

Taiga forest

ZOTTO Tall Tower

Latitude 60.80
Longitude 89.35

ZOTTO Forest Eddy

Latitude 60.81
Longitude 89.36

ZOTTO Bog Eddy

Latitude 60.36
Longitude 89.39

Overview

  • 304 m heigh Tall tower, from 2006 to present
  • Measurement platforms at 52, 158, and 301 metres
  • Joint work of different MPI-BGC departments
  • Air conditioned bunker for scientific equipment
  • Generators for energy supply
  • Two Eddy covariance towers (10 m and 30 m heigh), since 2011

Project

Description, History

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) is located in Central Siberia at 60480 N, 89210 E, approximately 20 km west of Zotino village at the Yenisei River (114 m a.s.l.). The ecosystem in the light taiga around the station comprises Pinus sylvestris forest stands (about 20 m height) on lichen covered sandy soils (Schulze et al., 2002).

The closest large city Krasnoyarsk (950 000 inhabitants) is situated about 600 km south of the station. Two day lasting transport of equipment to this remote location is only possible in winter, implying an inherent need to reduce maintenance efforts and the consumption of consumables (Winderlich et al., 2010).

In the past, the ecosystems around ZOTTO were monitored for several years by aircraft and Eddy covariance systems (see Zotino site). The construction of a new 304 m tall tower finished in September 2006 (Schulze et al., 2010).

Aerosol and carbon monoxide measurements are done on 301 m and 52 m tower heights

Ozone and NOx are analyzed from 30 m level (Vivchar et al., 2009).

Until June 2007, a complex gas measurement system for CO2, O2, CH4, CO, and N2O based on gas chromatography, paramagnetic sensors, and near-infrared spectroscopy was operated providing trace gas information for five tower levels (Kozlova et al., 2009). Today there is a new low maintenance high precision CO2/CH4 measurement system that started operating in April 2009.

Contribution of Fieldexperiments and Instrumentation group to the tall tower is mainly by installing meteo sensors in 6 heights and mounting bracket arms and sensor holders as well as installing lightning protection.

Since 2011 there are 2 new Eddy covariance towers near the Tall tower in a bog and a forest.

Variables & Instruments

"ZOTTO Forest Eddy"

Fluxes

  • Eddy covariance - CO2, water vapor, momentum, heat (USA-1, LI7200)
  • Profile - CO2 (GMP343)

Meteorology

  • Wind velocity and wind direction - 3D-ultrasonic-anemometer USA-1, Metek
  • Air pressure - pressure transmitter 61302V, Young
  • Air temperature and humidity - temperature-humidity-sensors KPK1_6-ME-H38, Mela
  • Precipitation - heated tipping bucket rain gauge, Thies
  • Solar radiation - net radiometer CNR1, Kipp & Zonen
  • Terrestrial radiation - net radiometer CNR1, Kipp & Zonen
  • Photosynthetically active radiation - PAR sensor PQS1, Kipp & Zonen

Soil conditions

  • Soil temperature - soil temperature sensors PT100, home-made
  • Soil moisture in 4 depths - soil moisture probes ML-2x, Delta-T
  • Soil heat flux in 5 locations - soil heat flux plates HP3/CN3, Rimco

Data acquisition

  • Meteorological data - datalogger CR3000, Campbell Scientific
  • CO2 profile data - datalogger CR10X, Campbell Scientific
  • Flux data - laptop

"ZOTTO Bog Eddy"

Fluxes

  • Eddy covariance - CO2, water vapor, momentum, heat (USA-1, LI7200); CH4 (Picarro G1301-f)

Meteorology

  • Wind velocity and wind direction - 3D-ultrasonic-anemometer USA-1, Metek
  • Air pressure - pressure transmitter 61302V, Young
  • Air temperature and humidity - temperature-humidity-sensors KPK1_6-ME-H38, Mela
  • Precipitation - heated tipping bucket rain gauge, Thies
  • Solar radiation - net radiometer CNR1, Kipp & Zonen
  • Terrestrial radiation - net radiometer CNR1, Kipp & Zonen
  • Photosynthetically active radiation - PAR sensor PQS1, Kipp & Zonen

Soil conditions

  • Soil temperature - soil temperature sensors PT100, home-made
  • Soil moisture in 5 depths - soil moisture probes ML-2x, Delta-T
  • Soil heat flux in 5 locations - soil heat flux plates HP3/CN3, Rimco

Data acquisition

  • Meteorological data - datalogger CR3000, Campbell Scientific
  • Flux data - laptop

Publications

Heimann, M., Schulze, E. D., Winderlich, J., Andreae, M., Chi, X., Gerbig, C., Kolle, O., Kübler, K., Lavric, J. V., Mikhailov, E., Panov, A., Park, S., Rödenbeck, C., Skorochod, A. (2014). The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (Zotto): Quantifying Large Scale Biogeochemical Changes in Central Siberia. Nova Acta Leopoldina NF, 117(399), 51-64.

Winderlich, J., Gerbig, C., Kolle, O., Heimann, M. (2014). Inferences from CO2 and CH4 concentration profiles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) on regional summertime ecosystem fluxes. Biogeosciences, 11(7), 2055-2068. doi:10.5194/bgd-10-15337-2013.

Vasileva, A. V., Moiseenko, K. B., Mayer, J. C., Jürgens, N., Panov, A., Heimann, M., Andreae, M. O. (2011). Assessment of the regional atmospheric impact of wildfire emissions based on CO observations at the ZOTTO tall tower station in central Siberia. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 116, D07301. doi:10.1029/2010jd014571.

Winderlich, J., Chen, H., Gerbig, C., Seifert, T., Kolle, O., Lavric, J. V., Kaiser, C., Hofer, A., Heimann, M. (2010). Continuous low-maintenance CO2/CH4/H2O measurements at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 3(4), 1113-1128. doi:10.5194/amt-3-1113-2010.

Schulze, E.-D., Vygodskaya, N. N., Tchebakova, N. M., Czimczik, C. I., Kozlov, D. N., Lloyd, J., Mollicone, D., Parfenova, E., Sidorov, K. N., Varlagin, A. V., Wirth, C. (2002). The Eurosiberian Transect: an introduction to the experimental region. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 421-428.