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Norunda (Sweden)


Latitude 60.09
Longitude 17.48


  • Campaign 2006
  • Eddy covariance
  • Meteorology
  • Advection


Description, History

The ADVEX project was an extensive experimental activity of the CarboEurope-Integrated project (CEIP) whose overall target was “to understand and quantify the terrestrial carbon balance of Europe and the associated uncertainties at local, regional and continental scale”. With this goal in mind, the ADVEX group was formed with the following aims:

a) To apply the best experimental setup for advection experiments
b) To understand the micrometeorological and biological processes those are responsible for advective CO2 fluxes
c) To apply the most suitable method to estimate the components and the total of the advective fluxes
d) To provide indication of conditions under which advection occurs
e) And to provide means for correcting eddy covariance fluxes for advection (Feigenwinter C. et al., 2010, Kahled, B.2011)

The measurements were carried out at the ADVEX site in Norunda, which is located in central Sweden. Norunda is about 30 km north of Uppsala, in a cold-temperate to boreal climate. The mean annual temperature in Uppsala is 5.4°C and the annual precipitation is about 520 mm (Lundin et al., 1999; M. Aubinet et al., 2010).

The topography is flat; soil is typically of glacial origin, which is rich in clay, sandy and gravelly tills with moderate to high occurrence of large boulders with diameters up to 1.5 m. Granite, sedimentary gneiss and leptite characterize the bedrock of the region. The forest floor is rich in soft mosses, grasses (which is more common in moist and rocky terrain) and stands of dwarf shrubs which are dominated by (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and V. vitis-idaea L.) (Lundin et al., 1999; Lagergren et al.,2005; Feigenwinter et al., 2010).

The study area is covered by a healthy growing coniferous forest which is dominated by Scots pine (65%, Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (33%, Picea abies L.), which prefer to grow in a location where the soil is wet and deep. Otherwise a small fraction of deciduous trees like birch (Betulla spp. (L.)), are spread in a little swamp where the water table is just below the ground.

The maximum height of the trees is about 30 m for some spread pine, extending at least 1 km in all directions from the main tower. In this dimension around the main tower a variety of species composition can be found with the stand age estimated about 70-100 years (Lagergren et al., 2005; Feigenwinter et al., 2010).

Variables & Instruments


  • Eddy covariance - CO2, water vapor, momentum, heat (Gill R3, LI7000)
  • Profile at 4 heights - CO2, H2O (Gill R3, LI6262)

Soil conditions

  • Soil temperature - soil temperature sensors PT100, home-made
  • Soil moisture - soil moisture probes ML-2x, Delta-T
  • Soil heat flux - soil heat flux plates HP3/CN3, Rimco

Data acquisition

  • Flux and profile data - notebook


Feigenwinter, C., Bernhofer, C., Eichelmann, U., Heinesch, B., Hertel, M., Janous, D., Kolle, O., Lagergren, F., Lindroth, A., Minerbi, S., Moderow, U., Molder, M., Montagnani, L., Queck, R., Rebmann, C., Vestin, P., Yernaux, M., Zeri, M., Ziegler, W., Aubinet, M. (2008). Comparison of horizontal and vertical advective CO2 fluxes at three forest sites. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 148: 12–24.

Feigenwinter, C., Mölder, M., Lindroth, A., Aubinet, M. (2010). Spatiotemporal evolution of CO2 concentration, temperature, and wind field during stable nights at the Norunda forest site. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 692–701.

Feigenwinter, C., Bernhofer, C., Kolle, O., Lindroth, A., Moderow, U., Mölder, M., Queck, R., Rebmann, C., Yernaux, M., Zeri, M., & Aubinet, M. (2010). Direct CO2 advection measurements and the night flux problem. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 651–654.

Kahled, Bahzad : Spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux at ADVEX site Norunda in Sweden. Master Degree-thesis. - Lund University, Sweden: In Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, 2011

Moderow, U., Aubinet, M., Feigenwinter, C., Kolle, O., Lindroth, A., Molder, M., Montagnani, L., Rebmann, C., Bernhofer, C. (2009). Available energy and energy balance closure at four coniferous forest sites across Europe. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 98(3-4), 397-412