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Zotino (Russia)

West of the Yenisei

(FAT EDDY ARMS)

Location

Western Siberian lowlands - Light Taiga

Zotino Forest

Latitude 60.75
Longitude 89.39
Elevation 160 m a.s.l.

Zotino Bog

Latitude 60.77
Longitude 89.41
Elevation 160 m a.s.l.

East of the Yenisei

Location

Central Siberian mountain range - Black Taiga

Yenisei, East Abies

Latitude 61.03
Longitude 89.77

Yenisei, East Mixed

Latitude 61.07
Longitude 89.79

Yenisei, East Betula

Latitude 61.03
Longitude 89.82

Overview

  • Eddy covariance
  • Meteorology
  • East of the Yenisei - Campaign in 2000
  • West of the Yenisei - Campaign in 2003

Projects

Description, History

West of Yenisei

The study sites were located approximately 30 km inland to the west and 15 km to the east of the Yenisei river, with the closest settlements being the villages of Zotino and Vorogovo.

A permanent flux tower was established in a pristine 220 yr old Pine forest which had not been burnt for 90 yr. This forest is located at the east-facing embankment of the upland sands (soil pH 4.3–5.1, 0.8 tN ha−1, 34.3 tC ha−1 in the organic layer plus mineral soil to 1 m deph).

Additional flux measurements were carried out in an Aapa bog (1998–2000, Arneth et al., 2001). Short term measurements took place on different stages after logging (Valentini et al., 2000; Rebmann et al., 2001)

The region is cold continental, has an average annual air temperature below minus 1°C and low precipitation of just under 600 mm (Kurbatova et al., 2002), somewhat higher along the hills that are covered by dark taiga. There is a distinct seasonality in air temperatures, which approach nearly 20°C on average in the warmest month (July) when daily maxima can exceed 30°C. The period of snow cover lasts approximately seven months, typically from mid to late September until snow-melt begins by around mid-April or early May.

The 200 year old Pinus sylvestris forest and a mire are located in close proximity to each other. The monospecific pine forest represents the typical vegetation re-growing after fire on the sandy soils to the west of the Yenisej. It has a LAI of 1.5, with a ground cover dominated by various lichen species. The mires that are interspersed with the Scots pine stands are typical for the central Siberian lowlands between the rivers Ob and Jenisei.

The Betula stands grow on sandy silts that dominate to the east of the river what is the initial rise of the Central Siberian mountain range; it is an early succession species of the “dark taiga”. Maximum leaf area of this nearly monospecific forest was 2.6 by late August.


East of the Yenisei

About 20 km far from Zotino on the east site of the river Yenisei were 3 Eddy towers set up in different habitat. One was a Birch forest, one a mixed conifereous-decidious forest and the other a pole forest with mainly straight thin spruce. The Measurement took from April 2000 until Sepember 2000.

The East Yenisei region is the escarpment of the Central Siberian Mountain range, which reaches up to 1100 m. The initial rise above the level of the west Siberian plain is about 200–300 m. The soils are weathered from Cambrian and Palaeozoic bedrock of granite, quarzites and calcareous sediments. The region near the Yenisei river is characterized by a flat plateau which is dissected by creeks and rivers. River banks may be steeply cut into the landscape.

The climate shows a distinct gradient from west to east, with the west face of the escarpment having rainfall of about 600–700 mm. Rainfall decreases towards the east of the mountain rise.

The winter temperatures are similar to those on the west bank of the Yenisei, but summer temperatures are lower.

The higher rainfall and the higher cation contents of the soils of the west escarpment result in a dense dark taiga forest, which is dominated by Betula and Populus on secondary successional areas, following rare fire events. Betula is overgrown by Picea and Abies, which then dominate the vegetation even after disturbance by insects and wind.

Local waterlogged areas and areas without long-term disturbance are dominated by Pinus sibirica forest. Although the valley floors may have organic soils, there are no extended peat bogs (Schulze et al., 2002).

Flux measurements were carried out in Betula forest, mixed boreal forest being in transition to a monotypic coniferous forest and in a stand dominated by Abies (Röser et al., 2002).

Variables & Instruments
(exemplary set up, exact table - Röser et al. 2002 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.01351.x/full)

Fluxes

  • Eddy covariance - CO2, water vapor, momentum, heat (Gill R3, LI6262-3)
  • CO2 measurements - CO2-Transmitter (GMT222)

Meteorology

  • Wind velocity - cup anemometer A100R, Vector Instruments
  • Wind direction - wind vane W200P, Vector Instruments
  • Air pressure - pressure transmitter PTB101B, Vaisala
  • Air temperature and humidity - temperature-humidity-sensor HMP45D, Vaisala
  • Precipitation - heated tipping bucket rain gauge, Young
  • Net radiation - pyradiometer LXG055, Dr Lange
  • Photosynthetically active radiation - photosynthetic photon flux density sensor LI-190SA, LiCor Inc.
  • Net global radiation or albedo - pyranometer CM 14, Kipp and Zonen

Soil conditions

  • Soil temperature - soil temperature sensors PT100, home-made
  • Soil moisture - soil moisture probes ML-2x, Delta-T
  • Soil heat flux - soil heat flux plates HP3/CN3, Rimco or Heat flux plates REBS, REBS Inc.

Data acquisition

  • Meteorological data - datalogger Dl 3000, Delta-T
  • Flux data - laptop
  • Profile - datalogger CR23X and CR10X, Campbell Scientific

Publications

Arneth, A., Kurbatova, J., Kolle, O., Shibistova, O. B., Lloyd, J., Vygodskaya, N. N., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Comparative ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of energy and mass in a European Russian and a central Siberian bog II. Interseasonal and interannual variability of CO2 fluxes. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 514-530.

Arneth, A., Veenendaal, E. M., Best, C., Timmermans, W., Kolle, O., Montagnani, L., Shibistova, O. (2006). Water use strategies and ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 in two highly seasonal environments. Biogeosciences, 3(4), 421-437.

Arneth, A., Lloyd, J., Shibistova, O., Sogachev, A., Kolle, O. (2006). Spring in the boreal environment: observations on pre- and post-melt energy and CO2 fluxes in two central Siberian ecosystems. Boreal Environment Research, 11(4), 311-328.

Lloyd, J., Shibistova, O., Zolotoukhine, D., Kolle, O., Arneth, A., Wirth, C., Styles, J. M., Tchebakova, N. M., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Seasonal and annual variations in the photosynthetic productivity and carbon balance of a central Siberian pine forest. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 590-610.

Lloyd, J., Francey, R. J., Mollicone, D., Raupach, M. R., Sogachev, A., Arneth, A., Byers, J. N., Kelliher, F. M., Rebmann, C., Valentini, R., Wong, S.-C., Bauer, G., Schulze, E.-D. (2001). Vertical profiles, boundary layer budgets, and regional flux estimates for CO2 and its 13C/12C ratio and for water vapor above a forest/bog mosaic in central Siberia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(2), 267-284. doi:10.1029/1999GB001211

Lloyd, J., Kolle, O., Shibistova, O., Tchebakova, N., Zolutukin, D., Arneth, A., Schulze, E.-D. (2001). The carbon balance of a Siberian forest. In G. Inoue (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Workshop for advanced flux network and flux evaluation (pp. 39-45). Sapporo: Hokkaido University, Center for global environmental research.

Röser, C., Montagnani, L., Schulze, E.-D., Mollicone, D., Kolle, O., Meroni, M., Papale, D., Marchesini, L. B., Federici, S., Valentini, R. (2002). Net CO2 exchange rates in three different successional stages of the "Dark Taiga" of central Siberia. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 642-654.

Schulze, E.-D., Lloyd, J., Kelliher, F. M., Wirth, C., Rebmann, C., Lühker, B., Mund, M., Knohl, A., Milyukova, I. M., Schulze, W., Ziegler, W., Varlagin, A. B., Sogachev, A. F., Valentini, R., Dore, S., Grigoriev, S., Kolle, O., Panfyorov, M. I., Tchebakova, N., Vygodskaya, N. N. (1999). Productivity of forests in the Eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink - a synthesis. Global Change Biology, 5(6), 703-722.

Schulze, E.-D., Vygodskaya, N. N., Tchebakova, N. M., Czimczik, C. I., Kozlov, D. N., Lloyd, J., Mollicone, D., Parfenova, E., Sidorov, K. N., Varlagin, A. V., Wirth, C. (2002). The Eurosiberian Transect: an introduction to the experimental region. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 421-428.

Shibistova, O. B., Lloyd, J., Kolle, O., Arneth, A., Chebakova, N. M., Zolotukhin, D. A., Zrazhevskaya, G. K., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Estimation of CO2 accumulation by a scots pine stand using eddy-covariance technique. Doklady Akademii Nauk 383(3), 425-429.

Shibistova, O., Lloyd, J., Evgrafova, S., Savushkina, N., Zrazhevskaya, G., Arneth, A., Knohl, A., Kolle, O., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Seasonal and spatial variability in soil CO2 efflux rates for a central Siberian Pinus sylvestris forest. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 552-567.

Shibistova, O., Lloyd, J., Kolle, O., Arneth, A., Tchebakova, N., Zolothukhin, D., Zrazhevskaya, G., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Eddy covariance assessment of CO2 accumulation in mature pine forest (in russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk, 383(3), 425-429.

Shibistova, O., Lloyd, J., Zrazhevskaya, G., Arneth, A., Kolle, O., Knohl, A., Astrakhantceva, N., Shijneva, I., Schmerler, J. (2002). Annual ecosystem respiration budget for a Pinus sylvestris stand in central Siberia. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 568-589.

Siqueira, M., Leuning, R., Kolle, O., Kelliher, F. M., Katul, G. G. (2003). Modelling sources and sinks of CO2, H2O and heat within a Siberian pine forest using three inverse methods. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 129(590), 1373-1393.

Styles, J. M., Raupach, M. R., Farquhar, G. D., Kolle, O., Lawton, K. A., Brand, W. A., Werner, R. A., Jordan, A., Schulze, E.-D., Shibistova, O., Lloyd, J. (2002). Soil and canopy CO2, ¹³ CO2, H2O and sensible heat flux partitions in a forest canopy inferred from concentration measurements. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 655-676.

Styles, J. M., Lloyd, J., Zolotoukhine, D., Lawton, K. A., Tchebakova, N., Francey, R. J., Arneth, A., Salamakho, D., Kolle, O., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Estimates of regional surface carbon dioxide exchange and carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination during photosynthesis from concentration profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 768-783.

Tchebakova, N. M., Kolle, O., Zolotoukhin, D. A., Lloyd, J., Arneth, A., Parfenova, E. I., Schulze, E.-D. (2002). Annual and seasonal dynamics of energy- and mass exchange in pine forest of middle taiga. In F. I. Pleshikov (Ed.), Forest ecosystems of the Yenisey Meridian (pp. 252-264). Novosibirsk: Publishing House of SB RAS.

Tchebakova, N. M., Kolle, O., Zolotoukhine, D., Arneth, A., Styles, J. M., Vygodskaya, N. N., Schulze, E.-D., Shibistova, O., Lloyd, J. (2002). Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy and water vapour fluxes above a Pinus sylvestris forest in the Siberian middle taiga. Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), 537-551.

Valentini, R., Dore, S., Marchi, G., Mollicone, D., Panfyorov, M., Rebmann, C., Kolle, O., Schulze, E.-D. (2000). Carbon and water exchanges of two contrasting central Siberia landscape types: regenerating forest and bog. Functional Ecology, 14(1), 87-96.

Wirth, C., Schulze, E.-D., Schulze, W., Von Stünzner-Karbe, D., Ziegler, W., Miljukova, I. M., Sogachev, A., Varlagin, A. B., Panvyorov, M., Grigoriev, S., Kusnetzova, W., Siry, M., Hardes, G., Zimmermann, R., Vygodskaya, N. N. (1999). Above-ground biomass and structure of pristine Siberian Scots pine forests as controlled by competition and fire. Oecologia, 121(1), 66-80.

Schulze, E.-D., Lloyd, J., Kelliher, F. M., Wirth, C., Rebmann, C., Lühker, B., Mund, M., Knohl, A., Milyukova, I. M., Schulze, W., Ziegler, W., Varlagin, A. B., Sogachev, A. F., Valentini, R., Dore, S., Grigoriev, S., Kolle, O., Panfyorov, M. I., Tchebakova, N., Vygodskaya, N. N. (1999). Productivity of forests in the Eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink - a synthesis. Global Change Biology, 5(6), 703-722

Kelliher, F. M., Lloyd, J., Arneth, A., Byers, J. N., Mcseveny, T. M., Milukova, I., Grigoriev, S., Panfyorov, M., Sogachev, A., Varlargin, A., Ziegler, W., Bauer, G., Schulze, E.-D. (1998). Evaporation from a central Siberian pine forest. Journal of Hydrology, 205(3-4), 279-296